Developing Contemporary Collections in Museums and Archives: the official Women’s World Cup Mexico 1971
Leah Caleb’s flight tickets to Mexico ‘71. The first time Leah had flown. She and Chris had travelled to Italy earlier that year to play in a tournament by train.
How can museums use a contemporary collections policy to add to established archival sources? jjheritage was reminded of this recently when English footballers Leah Caleb and Christine Lockwood came to talk to us and the National Football Museum Hidden Histories of Women’s Football project lead Belinda Monkhouse, about playing in the unofficial women’s world cup in Mexico in 1971. Leah was just thireen and a half when she got on the plane to Mexico, via a stopover in New York, and Christine was fifteen years of age. They were allowed to travel because the manager of the Chiltern Ladies Football Club Harry Batt, and his wife June, had visited their respective parents and assured them that the players would be well looked after. Nevertheless, this would be the first time that both girls would fly on a plane, let alone travel to South America.
A month or so before the trip to Mexico, both Leah and Chris had travelled to Sicily to play in an international tournament, the organization of which led by Martini and Rosso executive Mr Paterno. Importantly, although FIFA, the world governing body of football had taken control of women’s football in 1969 as a direct result of businessmen like Paterno promoting women’s access, including in professional leagues in Italy and a planned first unofficial Women’s World Cup in 1970 in the country, FIFA had no aspirations for a women’s world cup.
Harry Batt, Chiltern Ladies FC manager & promoter of women’s football.
This raises a whole agenda around how and why there were connections between Italy and Mexico, while FIFA, the world governing body for football would not organize an official women’s world cup until 1991 in China. Business historians often ask themselves, do entrepreneurial people respond to opportunities or do they make their own opportunities?
Very little has been written about how entrepreneurs have imaged and defined women’s sport as a commercial activity. It perhaps made sense that a company who targeted women with their aperitif should sponsor women’s football, after all, the logo of Martini and Rosso was a ball and bar design. It was also clear that there were connections between the Italian businessmen interested in organising women’s football’s professional leagues and world cup competitions that Martini and Rosso sponsored the Cup in Mexico. This provided an important entrepreneurial backing, evident in the scale of the undertaking in both Italy and South America.
Leah and Chris both have this players medal from Mexico ‘71.
(Unofficial) Women’s World Cup Products, Promotion and Profits
So what did the Mexican organisers learn from Italy, and from hosting the recent men’s FIFA World Cup in 1970? Firstly, they defined the product, with the mascot Xochitl, meaning flower, and stylized female players holding a football, and then diversified the methods of commodification, from attendance in the stadium to collectibles (pins, card figures, programmes and so forth). The opening game in Mexico was played in front of a crowd of 80,000 people. Sports products therefore included the player product, with crowds willing to pay to watch in large numbers. So there were clearly specialist spectator products and associated products for those who could not attend matches in person.
Secondly, sports entrepreneurs proved that women’s football could sustain a large tournament popularity amongst a paying public. Argentina, Denmark, England, France, Italy and Mexico sent representative teams, with England declaring themselves ‘Independents’ because neither the FA, nor the WFA would recognize their efforts. Effectively the England team was Chiltern Valley Ladie’s Football Club and a few additional squad players. The first games were played in front of 80,000 people and the final, in the Azteca stadium, hosted over 100,000 supporters, who saw Denmark win over the home team. Some historians have been restrictively defining entrepreneurs as ‘seeking a profit’ to date. However, entrepreneurship is not all about the profit motive, and women’s football promoters at the time might also be considered to be ‘soclal entrepreneurs’ who act as agents of change in the supply of sports products and who attempt to increase the output of the sports industry, improve the customer experience, or raise interest in sports products by such means as developing new markets or creating new products. Much to research here, then, in terms of refining our understanding.
The six national teams and their interpreters (in pink). Note the varied merchandise that the interpreters are holding.
Conclusion, the legacy of the unofficial ’71 World Cup
Legacy can be difficult to assess. Why? Because the sports product is 1. non-durable and time limited 2. it is often a complementary product bought alongside other experiences (travel, betting, catering, alcohol) and personalized by the consumer 3. merit goods have to be consumed and the outcomes of matches are unpredictable–that is precisely why sport is so exciting. However this can be useful as the greater the uncertainty, sometimes the larger the audience.
Although the business legacy of the unofficial women’s world cup in 1971 has largely been neglected, the psychic benefit and kudos to the players remains very strong, as we saw on 1 May 2018 when we interviewed Leah and Chris, who have remained good friends today. This includes personal kudos, such as publicity, local history and personal fame. Leah was on television five times in 1971 in Mexico and all the English players featured widely in the Mexican press. Two young men walked from the edge of Mexico City to the hotel to bring Leah flowers, as the youngest player in the team. Although the team was entirely amateur and proud to represent their country, the organization of the tournament was very professional, with each team assigned an interpreter and specialist training facilities. The team were in Mexico for a month and this enabled them to take in much more than the football, with tourism encouraged with specialist trips and Chris has a Mariachi record given to her from Nelly, the England team’s interpreter’s brother. Ruben Fuentes is considered a Mariachi maestro and still alive at 92. Chris still treasures the memento today. More cultural exchanges to explore here, as one of the Mexican team came over to Britain and played for Chiltern Valley for a while to improve her English, before returning home.
So contemporary collections can do many things to enhance existing archival holdings, including addressing assumptions about women’s sport making progress today and that entrepreneurs have neglected women’s sport. For museums, contemporary collections also allow recent history to be revisited, and encourages items held in the private domain to move into public exhibitions. Therefore, wider awareness of little known aspects of history can be evidenced in an engaging and entertaining way.
There has been an increase in the number of museums dedicated to sport across the world, developing in a variety of forms, from Halls of Fame, to important archival collections, and more celebratory corporate entities. Football clubs which are also important global marques, such as FC Barcelona’s Camp Nou Experience and Manchester United Museum and Stadium Tour have realized that their history, and heritage are important to the authenticity of their brands. So many clubs have followed suit. However, these loyalties can often be linked to the fan experience, and other major stadia sometimes struggle to develop their own historical offer as a convincing, and, ultimately accurate. Wembley stadium tour for instance, makes little mention of the significance of both greyhound racing and speedway which were so central to Arthur Elvin’s successful business model at the original ‘twin towers’ Wembley stadium, let alone the Rugby League Challenge Cup final, boxing, American football, ski jumping, and the 1948 Olympic Games. Very much reflecting that the stadium is run by the Football Association, football is emphasized at the expense of these other regular users of the ground and Elvin’s use of the wider Wembley complex for the local community, including ice skating, swimming and athletics. Since the stadium was built as the centre piece for the British Empire Exhibition in 1924, this varied use is neglected at the peril of simplifying the story to the FA Cup, England’s victory in 1966 and football more generally. So historians of sport have become engaged in both reviewing exhibitions and the uses of public history as part of a paying visitor attraction experience.
The FIFA World Football Museum, Zurich
The National Football Museum, in Britain, originally opened in Preston in 2001 with the Harry Langton collection of over 140,000 boots, balls, programmes, paintings, postcards and ceramics. Although the rugby items in Langton’s collections were separated and sold off to the World Rugby Museum, the football collection was so extensive that it was sold in 1996 to FIFA as their museum collection and Harry Langton continued after the sale to act as consultant to add to the collection, particularly collecting art and fine art. But there was no permanent museum to house the collection. Forming the core of the National Football Museum, with Heritage Lottery Funding, a permanent display was situated at Preston North End’s Deepdale ground in February 2001. However, financial difficulties meant that the National Football Museum moved to the Urbis building in Manchester in 2016, with support from the European Regional Development Fund. At this time, in recognition of the fact that without Harry Langton’s dedication there would be no National Football Museum, the collection was renamed the FIFA-Langton collection. More than two million visitors have now seen the exhibitions and there is a varied round of temporary displays covering world cups, art and animation, and celebrations of football in World War One, and landmarks like the 125th anniversary of the Football League.
Meanwhile, work on a new FIFA World Football Museum at Tessinerplatz near Zurich-Enge station in Zurich began, and the building contractor officially handed the building over to FIFA Museum AG in December 2015. The museum opened to the public on 28 February 2016. The FIFA World Football Museum is based upon the FIFA archives. While the National Football Museum, Manchester is currently free to enter and encourages donations to support its work, entry to the FIFA World Football Museum costs, on average around CHF 20, with some concessions and group savings. There are a wide range of attractions awaiting visitors: an exhibition area over three levels, measuring more than 3,000 square metres and containing more than 1,000 unique objects, will cover all aspects of the world of football, plus on the top floor a range of active football related games to emphasise health and fitness as part of the visitor offer and covering Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths and Medicine (STEMM) subjects, such as velocity, speed, geometry and so forth. This speaks also to recent concerns about health and wellbeing in museums and where sporting museums may have an advantage in promoting healthy eating, and exercise. There is also an art space encouraging young people to interpret football graphically.
The collections, exhibits and related activities showcase significant artefacts, documents and photographs of global association football and its governing body. The permanent exhibition shows more than 1000 exhibits from an evolving collection including memorabilia, texts, and pictures. Particularly valuable for researchers, the museum manages the FIFA Documentation Centre involving thousands of historic texts, official documents, letters and books related to the game and its development since the early 20th century. FIFA was founded in 1904, but important early documents relate to earlier periods, such as the International Football Association Board (IFAB), formed in 1886 by the four British associations, and expanded to include FIFA in 1913.
By August 2016, visitors from 140 nations had taken in the colourful display of a rainbow of national jerseys that open the visitor experience. Perhaps unsurprisingly given its close proximity to Switzerland, Germany topped the list of international visitors with the UK in second place and the USA third. Many visitors were from further afield, with China, Brazil and India, Middle-Eastern and Arab-speaking countries notable. At the time of my visit in March 2018, school groups and a range of nationalities were visiting in various groups sizes.
As might be expected, there is a dedicated space for every FIFA World Cup since the inaugural tournament was held in Uruguay in 1930. The permanent exhibition has individual showcases filled with items from every edition of both the men’s and the Women’s World Cups, all located next to the World Cup Trophy.
In some senses the work of the National Football Museum and the FIFA World Museum overlap, as, at both, there are also displays to showcase football around the globe. However, there is more emphasis on Football League clubs in the displays in Manchester, whereas, in Zurich, the displays have to be mindful of a global audience. Both really rich sources for the historian of football, both facilities show that the serious study of the world’s favourite game has a rigorous public face as well as a fun way to engage those who may not be traditional audiences for heritage.
At Silverstone on 7 March 2018 we officially started the construction programme for The Silverstone Experience, with a Ground Breaking Ceremony. Our Royal Patron, Prince Harry, was in attendance to see how the project will encourage the engagement of young people, and in particular the next generation of engineers, with Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM). The format of the day therefore began at the Silverstone University Technical College (UTC) and presentations were made by Stuart Pringle, Managing Director Silverstone Circuit; Sally Reynolds, CEO The Silverstone Experience, and Ross Brawn Managing Director of Motorsports at Formula 1. Prince Harry then met students and teachers at the UTC.
His Royal Highness then officially started the construction phase with a ceremony in the empty Hangar building which will be converted over the next year to house The Silverstone Experience archive, heritage and museum displays. Lunch was then served in the British Racing Drivers’ Club (BRDC) clubhouse.
Silverstone ‘Home of British Motor Sport’
The Silverstone site is vast in scope and has a deep history and heritage. Archaeological research suggests Mesolithic, Neolithic and Early Bronze Age artefacts and cultural geography. Late Iron Age/Early Romano-British pottery has been excavated within the circuit. The site is also in close proximity to the Roman Road between Towcester and Alcester. Luffield Priory, associated medieval remains and other Early Modern links are also suggestive. However, although some of this longer history is evident in the names of key parts of the circuit, The Silverstone Experience (TSE) will ensure that the heritage of Silverstone and British motor racing, particularly after 1945, is interpreted for a wider public, as well as being protected for future generations. Luffield Abbey Farm, attached to Stowe, appears to have been a small farm managed by tenant farmers up until the site was requisitioned by the Air Ministry at the start of the Second World War. The airfield was closed in 1946, and in 1948 was converted into a motor racing circuit, initially utilising the runways and perimeter track. Since 1948 the circuit has been continuously operational. The permanent exhibition will celebrate the history of the circuit and the country’s position at the very heart of the global motor sport industry. The UK has a central role in technological innovation and leadership within global motorsport.
A Historic Race Track
The farm buildings, though altered and extended, form the core of the heritage area of the site and currently house the BRDC archive (known as the BRDC Farmhouse). In 1950 the World Drivers Championship was created and the very first World Championship event was held at Silverstone. Since then, the circuit has played host to the British Grand Prix – the country’s largest single sporting event – a record number of sixty-eight times. Between 1955 and 1962 the British Grand Prix alternated between Silverstone and Aintree. The even-numbered years were at Silverstone and the odd numbered and 1962 were at Aintree. Between 1963 and 1986 the race alternated between Silverstone and Brands Hatch. From 1987, and more radically in 1991, a series of modifications modernised the Silverstone circuit. Throughout its history, Silverstone has been closely linked to British motor racing and the British Racing Drivers Club (BRDC), founded in 1928, oversee the circuit and its history.
Historic personalities have always been evident at the circuit, be they volunteers, behind the scenes enthusiasts or racing motorists. Oral histories are capturing some of these key mmeories. Silverstone has hosted the most important personalities in world motorsport since the Second World War, including iconic Formula One drivers; Juan Manuel Fangio; Jackie Stewart; James Hunt; Alain Prost; Ayrton Senna, Michael Schumacher and Lewis Hamilton. Touring Car legends have included Jack Sears; Gerry Marshall, and John Cleland. Motorbike racing has had a strong history at Silverstone, notably Barry Sheene in the 1970s and more recently Jorge Lorenzo and Marc Marques. Can these heroes inspire the next generation? The Silverstone Experience certainly aims to do so, through promoting wider knowledge of heritage and history in diverse and dynamic ways that particularly engage young people in STEM subjects, even if they do not become racing drivers!
Rediscovering the heritage of the world’s oldest football league club: Notts County Football Club and Notts County Football in the Community
jjheritage is pleased to be working with Notts County Football in the Community in rediscovering the heritage of the world’s oldest football league club, formed in 1862. The Heritage Lottery Funded scoping project is due to be completed in April 2018 and will explore options for protecting and promoting the club’s history.
So, how did this history begin?
The club’s website refers to a local newspaper report which is quoted as saying: ‘The opening of the Nottingham Football Club commenced on Tuesday last at Cremorne Gardens. A side was chosen by W. Arkwright and Chas. Deakin. A very spirited game resulted in the latter scoring two goals and two rouges against one.' The Nottingham Guardian 28 November 1862.
This rather unusual report of the outcome of the match, two goals and two rouges, reflected that The Football Association was not formed until 1863, and the rules between football’s handling codes, such as rugby, and kicking codes could often be composite in the same game. Another thing that could change was club colours and shirts. Originally playing in amber and black hooped shirts, then chocolate and blue half patterns, in 1890 these were replaced by the now familiar black and white striped shirts, said to have inspired Juventus to change from their original pink colours.
The club was one of the original founders of The Football League in 1888, after professional football was acknowledged as inevitable by the Football Association in 1885. Notts County Football Club then reached its highest finish in The Football League during the 1890-1 season, and repeated the feat ten years later. Silverware would be more forthcoming from the FA Cup. After finishing runners up in this competition in 1891, Notts then took home the trophy in 1894.
In 1910 the club moved from Trent Bridge (where they had been tenants of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club) to their present home at Meadow Lane. The ground itself had a varied history, as it was bombed during World War Two, flooded in 1947 and, much later totally rebuilt between 1992 and 1994. More happily, it also hosted a number of festive events including a rock concert featuring Pink Floyd in 1968. Meadow Lane was also used by Nottingham Forest in 1968 after a fire had partially destroyed their main stand.
A landmark decision to sign the great Tommy Lawton from Chelsea for a record-breaking £20,000 saw large crowds and the Third Division (South) title in 1949-50. Since then, County had revived fortunes as a top flight club with manager Jimmy Sirrel in 1981-84 and under Neil Warnock in 1991/2. The club has subsequently survived relegation and promotion with equanimity, and the most recent financial problems were ultimately avoided when the present owner Alan Hardy took over in 2017. His appointment of Kevin Nolan as manager has also led to an upturn in fortunes on the pitch. More on the club history can be found here.
Three Words To Describe Your Club
In July 2017, the BBC reported a study of the three most popular words used to describe Premier League Football Clubs. The results are here with Leicester City FC, for example, described as ‘anomaly’ ‘impossible’ and ‘easiest’, which given their previous season was intriguing.
Building on this, Notts County Football in the Community conducted a ‘three words about Notts’ exercise in the context of examining the heritage, and respondents stressed the importance of ‘History’ and ‘Community’. This provided a basis for working with stakeholders to explore these themes.
As we all know, fans of football are often ardent historians of their club and there is a huge amount of expertise here. The project’s Reference Group, comprised of both local historians with a specialism in the city of Nottingham and Notts County FC, had been asked to think about other sporting and heritage venues that they have visited and liked. This fits with the longer term plans to assess and celebrate the heritage of Notts County. The project has asked: what would a heritage programme look like, and would other resources would be needed? Since the Notts County Supporters Trust was key in saving the club between 2006 and 2009, and the Football in the Community arm is vibrant and expanding, it reflects the club’s history to have diverse and inclusive voices in the formation of recommendations for a potential heritage programme.
With the club’s current focus on re-engaging the local community and a strapline that proclaims ‘An unrivalled history. An incredible future’, now seems a timely and topical opportunity to begin to reflect upon the history and heritage Notts County FC.
Images Courtesy of the Author's Personal Collection.
Maxie Herber and Ernst Baier skating at the 1936 Winter Olympic Games in front of huge crowds and dramatic scenery, typical of Olympic skating.
Madge Syers Olympic and World Champion London 1908
After the main London 1908 Olympic Games in July, the ‘Winter Games’ began in October, including Association Football, Lacrosse, Hockey, Boxing and Figure Skating. At the Prince’s Skating Club Knightsbridge, the women's individual skating gold medal went to Florence Madeline, 'Madge' Syers, who had previously retired from a world-class career due to ill-health but returned specifically to try for an Olympic medal. Else Rendschmidt won the silver medal for Germany. Dorothy Greenhough-Smith, who was the reigning British champion in Madge Syers absence in 1908, took third place for Britain. Gwendolyn Lycett of Britain and Elna Montgomery of Sweden were the remainder of the field.
Madge also won an Olympic bronze in the mixed pairs with her husband, Edgar in 1908. The gold medal went to the German pairing Anna Hübler and Heinrich Burger, ahead of married British couple Phyllis and James Johnson in second place. Phyllis Johnson was also a world champion with James, until his ill health forced her to change partners and she became the first person to win an Olympic medal with different partners, when with Basil Williams, she earned a bronze medal in the mixed pairs. Coming fourth, she narrowly also missed our on an individual medal in the women’s singles in Antwerp.
Madge’s mixed pairs medal was a fitting testament to Edgar’s support, as he had coached her to more advanced levels. Having entered the World Figure Skating Championships in 1902, as there were no rules to prevent women from competing, Madge came second to Ulrich Salchow. She won the ‘men's’ world championships in 1903 and 1904, defeating Edgar. She therefore forced the International Skating Union (ISU) to accept women’s competitions as part of their responsibility and her husband had fully supported this. A heart condition forced Madge Syers to cease competition soon after the 1908 Olympic Games. She died, aged just thirty-five, in 1917.
Ethel Muckelt Britain’s only medalist Chamonix 1924
The inauguration of a separate International Week of Winter Sport in Chamonix in January 1924 (later designated as the Winter Olympics), overseen by the French Olympic Committee, initially added little variety to the events available to female competitors. Overall, six sports and sixteen disciplines were included, with individual and mixed pairs figure skating events providing opportunities for just eleven female athletes in total.
Having previously finished fifth in the skating pairs at the 1920 Summer Antwerp Olympic Games with partner Sydney Wallwork, Britain’s Ethel Muckelt took bronze in the Chamonix 1924 Winter Games in the women’s singles figure skating. She finished behind Herma Planck-Szabi of Hungary and Beatrix Loughran of the United States of America. Muckelt therefore became the first British athlete to win a Winter Games Olympic medal and narrowly missed out on another victory in the mixed pairs with partner Jack Page. Muckelt’s bronze would be Britain’s only medal in Chamonix and result in a tenth place finish overall for the British team.
Born in 1885, Ethel Muckelt’s family made their fortune manufacturing textile dyes. She had learned to skate at the Manchester Ice Rink; the only permanent facility in Britain outside of London at the time. So regional differences could be as important as other factors, like class and gender, in developing Olympic hopefuls. Phyllis Johnson, who had taken part in the 1908 London Olympics and skated again in 1920, could not sustain her place in the squad for Chamonix. Nor could her Antwerp team-mate Madelon St John. Muckelt’s Mancunian colleague, Gertrude Kathleen Shaw, came seventh in the individual competition in 1924, before competing again in St Moritz in 1928. For Mildred Richardson of London, in eighth place, it would be her only Olympic Games.
Although the numbers were relatively slight, figure skating was to have tremendous popular appeal and spectator interest in Olympic competitions was intense. Though she came last in the 1924 women’s figure skating, Norway’s Sonja Henie aged eleven, would redefine the sport. From 1927 to 1937 Henie won ten consecutive world titles and three individual gold medals at the St Moritz Olympic Games in 1928, in Lake Placid, 1932 and at Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Germany 1936. Turning professional in 1937, Henie became one of the highest paid actresses in Hollywood with the release of motion pictures Thin Ice (1937) One in A Million (1939) and Sun Valley Road (1941).
The All-Female British Winter Olympic Team in 1932
The Lake Placid Winter Olympic Games in 1932 saw the first all female British Olympic team of just four figure skaters, who could therefore only participate in the individual competitions (and not the mixed pairs). The figure skating as a whole was contested by 13 nations; more than any other sport. However, the women singles was restricted to 7 national representatives (including Austria, Belgium, Canada, Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, and the United States) with the mixed pairs contested by just four teams (Canada, France, Hungary and the United States). However, social class was an important part of the story of how and why the four British women came to be on the team at Lake Placid.
The reasons for a small team were mainly financial, so far as the British Olympic Association (BOA) said it was concerned, but also because the Winter Olympics had much less national prestige than the Summer Games. A letter from the Skating Association was considered in November 1931, that forecast no British representative would be in the medals and, in view of cost, one man and one woman should be sent as a token gesture with the hope of a top six placing. Similarly the British Ice Hockey Association sought to identify male British-born players in Canada and the United States both to enlargen the search for talent and to save on travel costs. Bobsleigh was not considered a national sport, so any male competitors had to fund their own way. As late as December 1931, the BOA decided that only one skating competitor was proficient enough to fund at Lake Placid, presumably Mollie Phillips although she was not named, and allocated £75 14 shillings and 3 pence for the purpose.
For the first time in Olympic history, Great Britain’s flag bearer at Lake Placid was a woman. Mollie Phillips was by far the senior member of the team at the age of 24 compared to Joan Dix at 13 years of age; whereas Cecilia Colledge and Megan Taylor were both just 11 years old. Colledge was 11 years and 83 days, making her slightly younger than Taylor, at 11 years and 102 days, and she remains the youngest ever Olympian. Dix’s father Fred was originally from Norfolk and he had been a speed skater, competing at the 1924 and 1928 Olympic Games.
Megan Taylor was the highest-placed British athlete in seventh place, just ahead of Cecilia Coledge, Mollie Philips and Joan Dix. Born in Wimbledon, Megan Taylor was coached from infancy by her father, Philip, who had been a speed skater. She would be a longtime rival to Cecilia Colledge, and, by extension, Sonia Henie. Colledge, was the daughter of a surgeon and was coached by Jacques Gerschwiler, and had trained at the exclusive Ice Club, Westminster from 1928. In each case therefore the young women of the team (Colledge, Dix and Taylor) had a considerable amount of financial support and family interest in their chosen sport, to the extent of training as full time as education would allow. It was this familial support, and some private appeals by the Skating Association, that got one woman and three girls to Lake Placid.
Given the social background of these young women, the staging of the Lake Placid Winter Olympic Games and Los Angeles Summer Olympics of 1932 caused the British Olympic Association once again to debate the relationship between amateur values and specialist preparation. Even the timings, using a chronometer rather than a stop-watch, evidenced this increased technocracy. This was primarily described as an American ‘problem’ in correspondance between the BOA with the IOC over ‘broken time’ payments and implied professionalism. But skating also provided a public platform for young women to become sporting, and Olympic heroes.
All images courtesy of the National Football Museum.
The world’s fastest-growing economic power over the last two decades, China has used Olympic sports, and particularly football, as a way of integrating the country into Western markets. Football investment reflects China’s acquisitive overseas policy and acquiring European corporate assets has been part of that strategy. President Xi Jinping is a football enthusiast and previously said he wants China to win the World Cup in the next 15 years and the Chinese FA has committed to grow the sport to 50 million participants by 2050.
Of course, what President Xi Jinping is ignoring is the fact that China has already hosted two football world cups. In my recently published chapter in the Routledge Handbook of Sport and Legacy, I used the idea of asking how small scale tournaments, like Women’s World Cup in 1991 and 2007, may have helped China to build ‘soft’ legacy experience and expertise in preparation for larger Mega Events like the Beijing Olympiad of 2008. We usually understand ‘hard’ legacy to involve changes in infrastructure, whereas ‘soft’ legacy can often be overlooked. So football seems able to access markets that some other Olympic sports cannot, and, at the same time, the cultural and iconic aspects of the sport are attractive to China.
Migration and Global Flows in Football
It may make sense for one of the worlds largest and most populous countries to showcase itself through the mega event, but how did China build the capacity to do so? Many examples relating to football rely upon bringing in expertise, star players and so forth and there remains constant speculation about whether this or that big star will sign to play in China.
Again, we have to remind ourselves that this focus on football’s flows of migration and exploitation of new commercial markets is not new, although the globalised scale is an innovation. Scottish ‘Anglos’ were derided for following the money South to England almost as soon as the newly professional Football League was inaugurated in 1888. In 1950 several high-profile British professional players, including Charlie Mitten, Neil Franklin and George Mountford, moved to Indepentiente of Santa Fe, Colombia for the Princely sum of £2000 signing on fee and £60 a week. This was a short-lived and on their return home all were temporarily banned for their work as economic migrants and were sold by their clubs. Mitten’s Indepentiente signing on fee was reportedly double this sum, and the exact sums may well remain unclear. But what of the ‘little men in grey suits’ who organise world football: how is their expertise in hosting mega events built and how has China learned from that?
Using Mega Events to Brand a Nation on a World Stage
The first thing to note is that the narrative around China has changed considerably in terms of international relations, and especially in sporting contexts. China is actively investing in a number of infrastructure projects across the world, that brings in foreign investment, as well as external influence. Hosting mega events in a variety of sports fits with that wider policy in terms of being part-funded by the licensing organisation, but allowing local branding, accreditation and sponsorship. Both public and state finances provide for these increasingly large festivals, designed ultimately to attract both large numbers of tourists and global media attention.
As both Muller and Roche have indicated in their work on mega events, The Shanghai Expo of 2010 was much larger in terms of visitor numbers than the Beijing Olympic Games of 2008, but international and transnational sport has a prestige that pure commerce can lack, and this is often because of its highly symbolic and nationalistic nature. Part of this is also the ambition of the cost of staging such a transformative event with costs now regularly in excess of US$10 billion, marking out the host as aspirational and a related aspect of public culture capital investment, which appears to build a legacy for the local and regional community .
Not just Olympic Sports: Formula 1
Again Formula 1 is a case in point with the Chinese Grand Prix reputedly one of the largest loss making races in the calendar, offset in what it loses in money by the kudos of hosting the race. Like Formula 1, both the football and the Olympic authorities are moving into Eastern and Southern markets as older European audiences become saturated. We may be moving beyond the era of the mega event into the giga event, which is larger in visitor attraction measures, cost, mediated reach and transformation. Similarly, developments in e-sports are changing the nature of the mega event and blurring lines of who is performing and who is spectating.
Case Study Career: Zhang Jilong
My work on capacity building in mega events in China began in 1999 when I was a consultant to FIFA during the Women’s World Cup in Los Angeles, and again when it was staged there, having been moved from China due to the SARS outbreak in 2003. I presented my work on a panel with Zhang Jilong, a Vice President of the Chinese FA, Marie George Buffet who was at the time French Minister for Sport and Anita De Frantz an Olympic Vice President. I discussed with Zhang Jilong how he had come to sporting administration. Zhang was born in Shandong Province, and graduated from Beijing International Studies University in 1975. He joined the National Athletic Committee and worked in the foreign affairs department, where his language skills helped his career. He joined the Chinese Football Association in 1978 at a crucial time in its history following the Cultural Revolution and the death of Chairman Mao in 1976. With the support of FIFA member Henry Fok, China began to enter into the Asian Games and a number of high profile teams like Pele’s New York Cosmos, and West Bromwich Albion toured the country.
In addition to his role as the foreign affairs director at the State Sports General Administration, in 1989 Zhang joined the Asian Football Confederation’s rules committee, before also serving on the finance committee and was appointed in 1994 to the FIFA Women’s Football Committee. After serving on a number of organising committees for FIFA, Olympic and AFC tournaments, Zhang oversaw the Beijing Olympic Football tournament and acted as chief organiser for football at the 2012 Olympics. He has subsequently stepped down from a number of posts due to the international and domestic travel involved.
So my case study highlighted a relatively neglected aspect of ‘soft legacy’ as China transforms. Namely how individuals, and the organisations for which they work become adept at handling ever-larger sporting events, and not just in their own country but as a national representative on a global stage. So it might seem unusual to focus on a case study of an individual, but sport is often made at an individual level as well as networked at organisational level. If we think of the number of people with whom Zhang Jilong has interacted in the course of his career, we can see that China has built expertise in the administration of football that the country has now exported to London 2012 and other mega events, and this trend of the trained specialist looks set to continue. It’s another form of soft diplomacy and while many focus on the movement of expertise, like elite players, to China, the flows of migration are also changing British football.
Why Should Museums and Archives Engage with Oral History Specialists, including Academic Experts, in Producing Their Oral History Strategy?
Since the 1950s there has been an increased focus on ‘history from below’ in terms of a broader and more inclusive social history and these academic specialisms have also influenced museums and archives to include more oral histories. Traditionally, folklore, oral traditions and word of mouth cultures valued narratives that were passed down as sources of history but gradually printed sources became more valued. Since the formation of the British Oral History Society in 1973, after a more informal conference in 1969, academic historians began to use these techniques as ways of capturing the history of those excluded from traditional archives, and highlighted that archives and museums were often themselves sites of power in that collected historical documents were often the records of the ‘winners’ and the privileged.
Now oral historians can span a range or roles; including volunteers and non academics. This democratises history itself, since a range of people can participate in 'making history'. However practitioners across a range of academic disciplines have also highlighted that oral history is not an easy option, as it is sometimes considered to be, and specialists have developed the method into rigorous ways of recording, understanding and archiving narrated memories. International collaborations in narrative and memory between oral historians in the 1980s, led to the formation in 1996 of the International Oral History Association
Although there are many ways of doing oral history, the common phrases used in projects are both 'history from below' and 'uncovering hidden histories'. These include a lot of connectivity with women's history, black and ethnic minority histories, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender histories and the history of medicine, particularly new specialisms such as gerontological focus on the memory of older people and ageing, such as new dementia research.
What Would JJHeritage Advise When Strategic Planning An Oral History Project?
Scale, Scope and Strategise at Bid Stage
Many projects begin from a position of seeing oral history as a relatively cheap form of research, when its primary reason is a commitment to the majority of lives rather than the few that become enshrined in archives and so have a social commitment to equality and diversity. This can often mean when putting bid for funding together that oral histories are given a small consideration because the 1. Scale 2. Approach and 3. Overall Strategy have not been agreed and realistically costed by the project team. It is at this bidding stage that you really need to involve an expert. It is better to have a small, successful proof of purpose strategy and then bid for more funding when you have proven the need for more interviews than over-reach by trying to do too many interviews of varied quality on a small budget and then have less rigor in your outcomes.
The Past-Present Dialogic or…If Your Project Uses Volunteers, Agree The Overall Approach, Standardise and Provide Training to Ensure Rigor and Quality
I’ve been doing oral histories since I was first trained in 1998 and an important principle is the past-present dialogic, which in plain English means that people are both the actors and subjects of their own histories, when interviewed. There is an important sense of ownership, not for the museum or archive, but the individual concerned and the role of the interviewer is to collaborate. Those who impose, shape through omission or neglect of a detail, or interpret are not respecting the right of the interviewee to tell their own history their way. See the Oral History Society guidelines for instance.
This is very important to us at jjheritage, as a common mistake of small and start up museums is to appoint a volunteer oral history co-ordinator who then uses volunteers to conduct interviews and another set of volunteers to transcribe interviews, and cannot describe their overall strategy or methodology. This lacks rigor and is fundamentally disrespectful to those being interviewed, and of course limits the value of the source to future generations. By involving specialists early this can be avoided and greater consideration given to intersubjectivity and the power relations between interviewers and interviewees, the responsibilities of researchers and the researched.
So, Who Provides The Narrative and What Aspects of Memory Should Be Recorded?
Academic researchers have been clear on ‘the challenges of the transcript.’ What they mean by this is that most of us edit ourselves, in speech, all the time either through intended omissions, exaggerations, figures of speech, the ability to recall and event, the emotions provoked through remembering and so forth. So, does the transcript record everything: the pauses, the repeated verbal ticks (erms, hmms, and so on), the changes of mind and contradictions, laughs, exclamations and so forth? Or does the transcriber edit, and if so to what extent? Increasingly, oral histories are digitally recorded for release as audio material, and here also ethical dimensions exist. What if the person makes a remark that could be inappropriate in the public domain, or is discriminatory, or could be hurtful for a living person or the deceased? What if the memory of an event is contested, since it is now generally accepted that a single event can be remembered very differently by people who experienced it? The processes of remembering are also being subject to more scrutiny and an emphasis on interviewing younger people, who have traditionally been excluded more from oral history studies than older populations. These delicate ethical debates require a standardised strategy at the outset so that exceptions can be managed in relation to the overall collection policy. Strategies can be adapted, but provide an overall framework in which to amend on a case by case basis.
Bridge is not considered by most people to be an Olympic sport but several of the world's leading 'mind-based' contests have been called Olympiads. Rixi Markus and Fritzi Gordon were one of Britain's most prolific women's pairings after World War Two and Jean has interviewed Fritzi's niece to find out more about her Aunt's career and life.
jjheritage are currently involved in a number of oral history projects in relation to motor sport, the Olympic and Paralympic Games, the Commonwealth Games, football, cricket, volunteering and hockey we can provide bespoke advice for your project how to begin, from planning and strategy to archiving the final interviews and dissemination activities. Let us help you to develop your project, in a sensitive, rigorous and strategic manner. It’s a uniquely rewarding way of doing public history and my most recent interviewee, 100 years young and who took me out to lunch (rather than the other way around), has inspired us to do more work in this important socially aware field of history, heritage and memory.
We are delighted to announce that we have been selected as the academic lead for the National Football Museum project Unlocking the Hidden History of Women’s Football. We will be working with the museum on several aspects of the project and so if you would like to get involved please get in touch. Our involvement in the project will last until September 2018 so there is plenty of time.
The first big task is to establish and lead a research network; to coordinate academic and community research and connect related collections on women’s football. There are many museums and archive with holdings containing women’s football, and jjheritage has worked with several of these including the British Library, The Imperial War Museum, The British Film Institute and The North West Film Archive along with colleagues from the Sporting Heritage Network and National Media Museum. There are also collections at various places of women’s work such as Lyons Tea Houses and Marks and Spencer, and some public history work funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund on the women’s team in Coventry, circa 1921.
There can be an international element to this as Jean has worked in archives on women’s football in China, USA, Australia, Namibia, as well as FIFA, UEFA and the International Olympic Committee collections in Switzerland. The Scottish Football Museum was very helpful in the past, and one outcome could be a scoping exercise of what is archived where, in relation to women’s football. We are also engaging the LGBTI communities and a number of equality and diversity groups in and around football.
A second major piece of the work is to host what we hope will be the largest international conference on women’s football on International Women’s Day 8/9 March 2018. We are hoping to bring over speakers from the US, Canada, Europe, and Brazil, as well as a wide range of UK speakers. A call for contributors will go out so if you wish to provide a blog post or contribute, look out for this later in November.
We will also research and prepare content for an extension of the Museum’s permanent gallery to include women’s football based on the Chris Ungar collection. Jean has curated and written exhibitions before. In 2016, she helped the museum to obtain funding for Memories of 1966, and in 2014 Jean co-curated The Road to Rio: History of the World Cup in 24 Objects.
Finally, we will explore the possibilities and funding opportunities for a publication. Jean has won several previous bids and written about women’s football in 60 countries, publishing 3 monographs and several articles on the topic. She has also worked extensively on object-based research with archivists across a range of collections including the Fashion and Textile Institute, New York and the National Sporting Library, Middleburg.
The Sporting Season and An Important Sense of Place Part 3: The ‘Profumo Pool’ at Cliveden House, Buckinghamshire
Cliveden House is currently a National Trust-owned property, leased as a hotel and spa. The main house is an Italianate mansion and with an estate of 375 acres of gardens and woodland in Buckinghamshire, on the border with Berkshire. Close to the village of Taplow, near to the Thameside town of Maidenhead, Cliveden’s grounds slope down to the river and the current Grade 1 Listed property is the third house built on the site, completed in 1851 by the architect Charles Barry for George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, the Second Duke of Sutherland. Although linked with the social elite, particularly when owned by the Astor family, Cliveden is open to the public through the National Trust scheme there and the grounds are much used by a wide range of people in the Spring, Summer and Autumn.
Nancy Astor and ‘The Cliveden Set’ in the twentieth century
Although Cliveden had a long and distinguished history dating back to the seventeenth century, its reputation was cemented as a place for glamorous leisure when the American millionaire hotel owner William Waldorf Astor purchased the estate for $1.25 million in 1893. Astor’s first wife Marnie died at the age of just 36 one year later, and William focused much time on the house, redeveloping it and adding key features such as the mid eighteenth century wall panels in the French Dining Room from Chateaux d'Asnieres near Paris and the Fountain of Love Fountain carved by Thomas Waldo Story in marble and volcanic rock.
Although Nancy Langorne had been previously married to socialite Robert Gould Shaw, she divorced and moved to England in 1905 with her son, and became a celebrity almost overnight for her beauty and wit. Within a year Nancy had married Waldorf, son of William Waldorf Astor, who gifted the Cliveden estate to the young couple. By becoming a prominent hostess to the British elite, Nancy became one of the most famous women in the world while in her mid twenties. For instance, Nancy received an elaborate Cartier tiara as a wedding present containing the legendary Sancy diamond weighing 55 carats, which had previously been used in the coronation of Louis XV and Louis XVI, and is now kept in the Louvre in Paris.
A supporter of women’s rights, Nancy also encouraged her husband to become involved in politics. In 1910, Waldorf was elected as a member of parliament for Plymouth, later reconfigured as Plymouth Sutton, until 1919. That year, Waldorf’s father died and he inherited the title of Viscount Astor, therefore he succeeded to the House of Lords. This also made Nancy ‘Viscountess Astor’ and she stood as a Conservative MP for Plymouth Sutton, and won. She became the first woman to ever sit in the House of Commons on 1 December 1919 and defended it until 1945.
Being wealthy, well connected and outspoken made Nancy Astor a controversial figure, although the couple fought for several causes in which they believed, including appeasement as a way of avoiding war in 1939. Public service also included turning Cliveden into a hospital during the First World War. When peace broke out again, President Roosevelt, Charlie Chaplin and George Bernard Shaw were among the high profile guests that made Cliveden so famous as a leisure destination for the elite. There is a legend that Winston Churchill and Nancy did not get along, with the supposed aphorism that she told him: ‘If you were my husband, I'd poison your tea’ to which he replied, ‘Madam, if you were my wife, I'd drink it.’ Either way, this reflects the tone of the times.
On the death of Waldorf Astor in 1952, his eldest son William, or Bill, became the 3rd Viscount Astor and he was to install the outdoor swimming pool that would spark one of the biggest political scandals in recent British political history. Nancy would become increasingly reclusive in her later years and died in Lincolnshire in 1964, by which time the Cliveden swimming pool would become famous world-wide.
The Profumo Pool
During the summer of 1961, scandal enveloped Prime Minister Harold Macmillan’s Conservative Government. John Profumo, Secretary of State for War, was the guest of Bill Astor at Cliveden and had a brief relationship with an aspiring model, Christine Keeler who was also involved with the Soviet naval attaché Yevgeny Ivanov, allegedly a Russian Spy. Keeler was staying at the Cliveden cottage with ‘society osteopath' Stephen Ward, who had friendships with all concerned, and she had gone to the swimming pool to a party, where Profumo was entranced.
Ward was bought to trial on exaggerated allegations of living on immoral earnings, including those of Keeler who was obliged to appear as a witness. Ward would commit suicide before he was convicted of the guilty verdict and his was not the only casualty. In March 1963 Profumo stood before the House of Commons and denied improprieties with Keeler. It was also alleged that Bill Astor had an affair with Mandy Rice-Davies, a friend and flatmate of Christine Keeller. Rice-Davies became the star of the show when Lord Astor denied having slept with her, by responding ‘Well, he would say that, wouldn’t he?’. The response entered the Oxford Dictionary of Quotations and has been repeated ever since. The case embarrassed the government and generally discredited those involved, all but for Rice-Davies who maintained a high profile and wealthy lifestyle of which Nancy Astor might have approved.
Cliveden House, now has a twenty first century spa alongside one of the most historic grade II listed swimming pools in Britain. The Profumo affair was really about old and new attitudes to sexual freedom as the Sixties began to swing. But the legacy and heritage of the scandal have been mixed and contested. No security risk was ever proven but Profumo had lied and had to resign.
Interestingly, Lord Denning’s report into the Profumo affair in 1963 revealed publicly for the first time details of the British Secret Service's role and increased interest in espionage at the height of the Cold War. The iconic photograph of Christine Keller taken by Lewis Morley in 1963, posing naked and sitting on an iconic plywood chair, was intended to promote a film The Keeler Affair that was never made.
In a separate court case in 1963, Keeler admitted to perjury and was sent to prison for nine months. She has published several accounts of her life including most successfully Scandal in 1989. In the film Scandal, actress Joanne Whalley portrayed Keeler. Andrew Lloyd Webber produced a stage musical Stephen Ward the Musical in 2013, and there have been many other references in popular culture. Finally, John Profumo lived quietly after his resignation and dedicated himself to charity, having been able to live off inherited wealth. Unlike Keeler, who was not able to sustain a comfortable lifestyle subsequently, he was later considered redeemed and awarded a CBE in 1975 and received at Buckingham Palace.
As you will be aware from previous jjheritage blogs, this made the venue an iconic sporting landscape and one in which Jean just had to go and swim. Thankfully, no scandal whatsoever ensued and my dip a very respectable affair!
The Serpentine is a swimming, boating and leisure lake in Hyde Park, established by Queen Caroline, the wife of George II, in 1730. Strictly speaking the Western half is referred to as The Long Water and the Eastern half The Serpentine but often the lake is considered to be a single body of water, and better known by the latter name, which refers to its sinewy natural-looking lines. There may have been monastic ponds on the site beforehand. Originally the water for the artificial lake of The Serpentine was supplied from The River Westbourne and The Thames but, due to pollution, the water now comes from three boreholes within Hyde Park. People have used the lake for leisure and pleasure since its creation, and it has a varied clientele, combined with other park users. A plan to create a skating pond with formal edges was for example proposed in 1860 but was never implemented.
Swimming, the Lido and The Serpentine Club
Though swimming in open water has been a popular activity since The Serpentine was first created as a lake, a rectangular swimming area on the southern bank opened in 1930, and was known as Lansbury's Lido, after a prominent Labour politician who was First Commissioner of Works from 1929-1931. Lidos were opened as part of a wider movement to encourage healthful recreation, and the important skills of swimming and life saving amongst the wider population. The Lido is partitioned off from the rest of the lake by a perimeter of buoys and, my research (A Contemporary History of Women’s Sport) has established that when it opened on 16 June 1930 the first person to enter was twenty one year old Kathleen Murphy of Pinner who had arrived at the gate at 5 am and was rewarded for her enthusiasm by a medal by Alfred Rowley the Secretary of the Serpentine Swimming Club.
The opening of the Lido marked a vague for mixed bathing outdoors that swept across Britain and saw more Lidos constructed in the 1920s and 1930s. However, The Serpentine Swimming Club was amongst the oldest swimming clubs, dating back to 1864, though at least one other club, the London Swimming Club, was also formally sharing the swimming area on the lake's south side at the time. This open air swimming was not for the faint hearted, as the lake could ice over in December and January and the number of people drowning in the Victorian era was a major cause for concern, with The Royal Life Saving Society founded in 1891. The Club holds a race every Saturday throughout the year: from a 40 yards to a mile, all measured in in imperial lengths. Members can swim in the Serpentine any time between 6am and 9.30am, and many do this as before their working day.
The Serpentine and Literary History
As you will probably be aware, as well as being a keen swimmer and having completed The Great North Swim mile event in Lake Windermere a few years ago, Jean was also for many years a teacher of English. So as well as the special geographical place of The Serpentine in the history of sport and leisure, Jean has long been intrigued by the history of the lake because it has a unique place in literary history. The poet Percy Bysshe Shelley was not known to swim, but he was drawn to water. Notoriously, in December 1816, his pregnant wife Harriet Westbrook, was found drowned in the Serpentine having left a suicide note addressed to her father, sister and husband. Having already conducted a lengthy affair since 1814, Shelley married Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, less than two weeks later. The couple had already lost their own daughter and would lose two more before a surviving child and the success of Mary’s novel Frankenstein bought happier times. But Shelley would drown in 1822 in suspicious circumstances in a boating accident off Sardinia.
More happily, the public are aware of the Serpentine Club Christmas Day Race, which records date back at least to 1864. Since 1913 the Christmas Day race has been swum for the Peter Pan Cup, donated and sponsored by James Barrie author of Peter Pan. Living nearby, he often walked in Kensington Gardens and Hyde Park and was inspired by the Serpentine swimmers. More directly, Indian author Vikram Seth became an active club member for several years as well as briefly using this experience in An Equal Music.
Jean Swims The Serpentine as a guest of The Serpentine Swimming Club 17 September 2017-water temperature 13 degrees!
So I have always wanted to swim The Serpentine Lido section, and joined as a day guest of a Serpentine Swimming Club member, called John. At a balmy thirteen degrees at eight o’clock on a Sunday morning the experience can perhaps best be described as bracing. The buoys are placed to mark out a rectangular area one hundred yards in length, though many of the club members swim beyond these to extend their workout. The single small, sparse changing room offered little comfort other than that others thought the experience worth the Spartan conditions. Although offered a regulation hat I declined as I often find that they give me a headache, but other guests are well advised to wear a bright cap for identification. Dodging the debris left by resident geese and ducks on the platform, a quick walk down the steps into the water and we were in! Other braver, and hardier souls dive into the lake, but entering the water head first can be shocking and so not for us. I swam with my friend Debbie who had not swum open water before and took to it like the proverbial duck to water. Or should I say dolphin because once acclimatized on the hundred yards out, her confidence and speed increased exponentially. Me? Well I had waited a long time to swim the Serpentine, and though my standard pool swim in a mile and a half front crawl, I choose to take my time and savour the experience. We are meeting again today, Saturday 30 September, #NSHD2017 to discuss our next open water swim to prepare for another Serpentine outing. Intrigued yourself? Why not take the plunge?